Web Designing & Development

Introduction
Web designing is the skill of creating presentations of content (usually hypertext or hypermedia) that is delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web, by way of a Web browser or other Web-enabled software like Internet television clients, microblogging clients and RSS readers.

History of WWW
Timothy John Berners-Lee a computer scientist and MIT professor credited with inventing the World Wide Web, making the first proposal for it in March 1989. In 1990, he implemented the first successful communication between an HTTP client and server via the Internet. And after this World Wide Web evolved and grow rapidly. And now we are in the second generation of web development and web design which is commonly referred as Web2.0. The advent of Web 2.0 led to the development and evolution of web-based communities, hosted services, and web applications. Examples include social-networking sites, video-sharing sites, wikis, blogs, mashups and forums.

Technologies used in web designing
The process of designing Web pages, Web sites, Web applications or multimedia for the Web may utilize multiple disciplines, such as animation, authoring, communication design, corporate identity, graphic design, , interaction design, marketing, photography, search engine optimization and typography.
The following are the languages and technologies used in web designing.
• Markup languages (such as HTML, XHTML and XML)
• Style sheet languages (such as CSS )
• Client-side scripting (such as JavaScript)
• Server-side scripting (such as PHP and ASP)
• Database technologies (such as MySQL and PostgreSQL)
• Multimedia technologies (such as Flash and Silverlight)

Web pages and Web sites can be static pages, or can be programmed to be dynamic pages that automatically adapt content or visual appearance depending on a variety of factors, such as input from the end-user, input from the Webmaster or changes in the computing environment (such as the site's associated database having been modified).

Markup Languages
A markup language is a system for annotating a text in a way which is syntactically distinguishable from that text. Examples include revision instructions by editors, traditionally written with a blue pencil on authors' manuscripts, typesetting instructions such those found in troff and LaTeX, and structural markers such as XML tags. Markup is typically omitted from the version of the text which is displayed for end-user consumption.
A well-known example of a markup language in widespread use today is HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web. HTML is an instance of SGML and follows many of the markup conventions used in the publishing industry in the communication of printed work between authors, editors, and printers.

HTML
HTML, which stands for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists etc as well as for links, quotes, and other items. It allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of "tags" surrounded by angle brackets within the web page content.

XHTML
The Extensible Hypertext Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. XHTML can be thought of as the intersection of HTML and XML in many respects, since it is a reformulation of HTML in XML.

XML
XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a set of rules for encoding documents electronically. XML’s design goals emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over the Internet. It is a textual data format, with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the world. Although XML’s design focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example in web services.

Style Sheet languages
A style sheet language or style language is a computer language used to describe the presentation of structured documents. A structured document which doesn't break the schema it is designed to conform to is "well-formed". A program processing the document must model the schema, and can present it in different formats, fonts, and order, as well as with other effects, by using different sets of style rules contained in different style sheets.One modern style sheet language with widespread use is Cascading Style Sheets, which is used to style documents written in HTML, XHTML,

CSS
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can be applied to any kind of XML document.

Client-side scripting
Client-side scripting generally refers to the class of computer programs on the web that are executed client-side, by the user's web browser, instead of server-side (on the web server). This type of computer programming is an important part of the Dynamic HTML (DHTML) concept, enabling web pages to be scripted; that is, to have different and changing content depending on user input, environmental conditions (such as the time of day), or other variables. Web developers write client-side scripts in languages such as JavaScript (Client-side JavaScript) and VBScript.

JavaScript
JavaScript was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the name Mocha, which was later renamed to LiveScript, and finally to JavaScript. JavaScript is a scripting language used to enable programmatic access to objects within other applications. It is primarily used in the form of client-side JavaScript for the development of dynamic websites. JavaScript was influenced by many languages and was designed to look like Java, but to be easier for non-programmers to work with.

Server-side scripting
Server-side scripting is a web server technology in which a user's request is fulfilled by running a script directly on the web server to generate dynamic web pages. It is usually used to provide interactive web sites that interface to databases or other data stores. This is different from client-side scripting where scripts are run by the viewing web browser, usually in JavaScript. The primary advantage to server-side scripting is the ability to highly customize the response based on the user's requirements, access rights, or queries into data stores.

PHP
PHP is a widely used, general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development, to produce dynamic web pages. It can be embedded into HTML and generally runs on a web server, which needs to be configured to process PHP code and create web page content from it. It can be deployed on most web servers and on almost every operating system and platform free of charge. PHP is installed on over 20 million websites and 1 million web servers.

ASP/ASP.NET
ASP.NET is a web application framework developed and marketed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It was first released in January 2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), allowing programmers to write ASP.NET code using any supported .NET language.

Database Technologies
In Web Designing database has lots of importance. First of all I want to tell what is database. A database is an integrated collection of logically related records or files which consolidates records into a common pool of data records that provides data for many applications. A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.

MySQL
MySQL (pronounced My S-Q-L or “My sequel” is a relational database management system (RDBMS) which has more than 6 million installations. MySQL stands for "My Structured Query Language". The program runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. MySQL is commonly used by free software projects which require a full-featured database management system, such as WordPress, phpBB and other software built on the LAMP software stack. It is also used in very high-scale World Wide Web products including Google and Facebook.

PortgreSQL
PostgreSQL is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS). It is released under a BSD-style license and is thus free software. As with many other open-source programs, PostgreSQL is not controlled by any single company, but has a global community of developers and companies to develop it.

Multimedia Technologies
Using multimedia content in website is the best way to attract users to your site. Flash is the most widely used multimedia application.

Flash
Adobe Flash (previously known as Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform originally acquired by Macromedia and currently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems. Since its introduction in 1996, Flash has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages. Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements, and various web page components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich Internet applications.

SilverLight
Microsoft Silverlight is a web application framework with a scope similar to Adobe Flash. Version 2, released in October 2008, brought additional interactivity features and support for .NET languages and development tools. Microsoft made the beta of Silverlight 3.0 available on March 18, 2009. The final version was released on July 9, 2009.

Hosting and Domains

Web Hosting
A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to provide their own website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own or lease for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. Web hosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for servers they do not own to be located in their data center, called colocation.

Domain Names
A domain name is an identification label that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control in the Internet, based on the Domain Name System (DNS). Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes. They are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains com, net and org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users that wish to connect local area networks to the Internet, run web sites, or create other publicly accessible Internet resources. The registration of these domain names is usually administered by domain name registrars who sell their services to the public. Individual Internet host computers use domain names as host identifiers, or hostnames. Hostnames are the leaf labels in the domain name system usually without further subordinate domain name space. Hostnames appear as a component in Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) for Internet resources such as web sites (e.g., csku.co.nr).



Web Promotion

Link Building
Most webmasters who are interested in promoting their sites via search engines such as Google are aware of the importance of backlinks when trying to rank for their chosen keywords. One of the things that set Google's patented algorithm apart from the lesser search engines was their use of link popularity to guide their SERP (search engine results page) positioning. As a result, backlinks matter - you can't do without them if you want to rank well in the major search engines Most webmasters who are interested in promoting their sites via search engines such as Google are aware of the importance of backlinks when trying to rank for their chosen keywords. One of the things that set Google's patented algorithm apart from the lesser search engines was their use of link popularity to guide their SERP (search engine results page) positioning. As a result, backlinks matter - you can't do without them if you want to rank well in the major search engines. Regardless of which methods you choose to promote your site, you should be aware of the following general guidelines that can make or break a campaign.


Some Common Terminologies:
Black Hat & White Hat, PageRank, Nofollow, Relevancy, Spam, Automation, Anchor Text

Ways of Link Building:
1) Link Exchange
2) Buying Links
3) Article Marketing
4) Blog Posting
5) Forum Posting/Signatures
6) Press Release
7) Directory Submission
8) Social Bookmarking
9) Widgets/Link Bait
10) Word of Mouth


Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
SEO is the active practice of optimizing a web site by improving internal and external aspects in order to increase the traffic the site receives from search engines. Firms that practice SEO can vary; some have a highly specialized focus, while others take a broader and general approach. Optimizing a web site for search engines can require looking at so many unique elements that many practitioners of SEO (SEOs) consider themselves to be in the broad field of website optimization (since so many of those elements intertwine).


Jobs and Earnings

Going professional in the Web industry can be as easy as setting up your own Web design Web site, or as complicated as taking a four year college course in Web maintenance and development. There is a lot to think about for the professional designer, beyond just how the pages look: pricing, contracts, legal issues, freelancing or not, how to get customers, and how to keep the ones you have. Sometimes it's as easy as learning HTML or Dreamweaver and applying for a job. But most of us have to work a little harder than that to find a good job in the Web design industry. These links will point you to resources for finding the perfect job, how to apply for it, and getting qualified for it through certifications and degrees. This is still a new profession. Don't be afraid to put yourself out there. Job postings often ask for all types of things when they might be looking for you. You know that you are the perfect person for the job, they just haven't hired you yet.

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